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Monitor recent or acute exposure to cadmium
Inductively-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS)
• Environmental exposure: Nonsmoker: 0.3−1.2 μg/L, smoker: 0.6−3.9 μg/L
• Occupational exposure: OSHA Cadmium Standard: 5.0 μg/L; BEI®: 5.0 μg/L1
Cadmium poisoning through industrial exposure to inorganic cadmium fumes may produce fatigue, coughing, chest pain, a burning sensation in the throat, and renal damage. The prognosis of persons with cadmium-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with urinary β-microglobulin and urinary protein the most important factors.2 Inhalation of cadmium fumes can lead to pneumonia with acute exposure and emphysema with chronic exposure.3
Cadmium poisoning is predominantly associated with cadmium fumes and/or inorganic cadmium salts that may be present in certain industrial environments. Cadmium and its inorganic compounds are commonly found in industry. Cadmium is utilized in many alloys and metal plating. Inorganic cadmium fumes or dusts are generally associated with heating, welding, and grinding of cadmium-containing metal products. Cadmium exposure in the general populace is derived from dietary intake, averaging 2−200 μg/day, and is only occasionally the precipitant of overexposure.
In organic forms, cadmium is present in food, water, and air. The normal daily intake of organic forms of cadmium ranges from 2−200 μg. Although this soluble form of cadmium may produce toxicity, overexposure to organic cadmium is generally indicative of isolated, environmental pollution. Whole blood is the recommended specimen for measuring acute or recent exposure.
BEI® are reference values intended as guidelines for evaluation of occupational exposure. BEI® represent biological levels of chemicals that correspond to workers with inhalation exposure equivalent to the threshold limit value (TLV®) of the chemicals. TLVs refer to the airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse health effects.1
Sampling time is not critical for industrial exposure monitoring. Metals with timing “not critical” have very long elimination half-lives and accumulate in the body over years, some for a lifetime. After a couple of weeks of exposure, specimens can be collected at any time.
Causes for Rejection
|Order Code||Order Code Name||Order Loinc||Result Code||Result Code Name||UofM||Result LOINC|
|085340||Cadmium, Blood||5609-3||085340||Cadmium, Blood||ug/L||5609-3|