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Vitamin B3 (Niacin and Metabolite)

CPT: 84591
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Synonyms

  • Niacin
  • Nicotinamide
  • Nicotinic Acid

Expected Turnaround Time

6 - 10 days


Related Documents


Specimen Requirements


Specimen

Serum or plasma


Volume

1 mL each tube


Minimum Volume

0.5 mL each tube (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)


Container

Red-top tube or lavender-top (EDTA) tube


Collection

Transfer the serum into a LabCorp PP transpak frozen purple tube with screw cap (LabCorp N° 049482). The specimen should be frozen immediately and maintained frozen until tested. To avoid delays in turnaround time when requesting multiple tests on frozen specimens, please submit separate frozen specimen for each test requested. Include the patient's age on the test request form.


Storage Instructions

Freeze.


Stability Requirements

Temperature

Period

Room temperature

Unstable

Refrigerated

Unstable

Frozen

14 days

Freeze/thaw cycles

Stable x3


Causes for Rejection

Gel-barrier tube; specimen not frozen


Test Details


Use

Measurement of vitamin B3 level as nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.


Limitations

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by LabCorp. It has not been cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration.


Methodology

Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)


Reference Interval

• Nicotinic acid: 0.0−5.0 ng/mL

• Nicotinamide: 5.2−72.1 ng/mL


Additional Information

Niacin (nicotinic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin that is also referred to as vitamin B3.1,2 Nicotinamide (nicotinic acid amide) is the derivative of niacin that is incorporated into the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).1-3 The nicotinamide moiety of NAD and NADP serves as an electron acceptor or donor in biological oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions catalyzed by several hundred different enzymes. NAD serves as the cofactor for enzymes that break down (catabolize) carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and alcohol while NADP supports biosynthetic (anabolic) reactions, including the synthesis of all macromolecules, such as fatty acids and cholesterol.1,2 Nicotinamide has also been shown to serve as a cofactor in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose transfer reactions that play an integral part in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair calcium mobilization.3,4 Studies of cultured cells and animal models suggest that ADP-ribose polymer-mediated DNA repair and cyclic ADP-ribose-mediated cell-signaling pathway may play a role in cancer prevention.3,4

Both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are absorbed from the normal diet. Nicotinamide is the form of vitamin B3 that is commonly found in nutritional supplements and used to fortify foods.1,5 Nicotinic acid is available both over the counter and with a prescription as a cholesterol-lowering agent.6-8 Niacin deficiency can result from inadequate dietary intake of niacin and/or the amino acid tryptophan. Tryptophan, obtained from the breakdown of dietary protein, can be converted to nicotinamide by liver enzymes that require vitamin B6, riboflavin, and iron. Deficiencies of these constituents can contribute to the development of niacin deficiency.1,2 Hartnup's disease, a hereditary disorder that reduces tryptophan absorption, can lead to niacin deficiency.1 Carcinoid syndrome diverts tryptophan to the increased production of serotonin and can reduce the production of nicotinamide.1 Prolonged treatment with isoniazid has also been associated with niacin deficiency.1

Niacin deficiency can affect the skin, digestive system, and the nervous system.1,2 Severe niacin deficiency, referred to as pellagra, has been associated with the "four Ds": dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and ultimately death.2 Pellagra dermatitis is characterized by a thick, scaly, darkly pigmented rash that develops symmetrically in areas exposed to sunlight.2 Digestive system symptoms include vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, and a bright red tongue.1,2 Pellagra can also cause neurologic symptoms, including apathy, fatigue, depression, headache, disorientation, and memory loss.1,2


Footnotes

1. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Research Center. Niacin. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/niacin/. Accessed January 7, 2011.
2. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Niacin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;1998:123-149.
3. Maiese K, Chong ZZ, Hou J, Shang YC. The vitamin nicotinamide: Translating nutrition into clinical care. Molecules. 2009 Sep 9; 14(9):3446-3485.
4. Kirkland JB. Niacin status impacts chromatin structure. J Nutr. 2009 Dec; 139(12):2397-2401.
5. Park YK, Sempos CT, Barton CN, Vanderveen JE, Yetley EA. Effectiveness of food fortification in the United States: The case of pellagra. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90(5):727-738.
6. McKenney J. New perspectives on the use of niacin In the treatment of lipid disorders. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164(7):697-705.
7. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen year mortality in coronary drug project patients: Long-term benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986; 8(6):1245-1255.
8. Guyton JR, Capuzzi DM. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with combined niacin-statin regimens. Am J Cardiol. 1998; 82(12A):82U-84U; discussion 85-86U.

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
070115 Vitamin B3 (Niacin+Metabolite) 070112 Nicotinamide ng/mL 56961-6
070115 Vitamin B3 (Niacin+Metabolite) 070113 Nicotinic Acid ng/mL 18244-4

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