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The test request form must state date and time collection started, date and time collection finished, and 24-hour urine volume.
Within 1 day
Turnaround time is defined as the usual number of days from the date of pickup of a specimen for testing to when the result is released to the ordering provider. In some cases, additional time should be allowed for additional confirmatory or additional reflex tests. Testing schedules may vary.
10 mL aliquot
1 mL aliquot (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)
Plastic urine container without preservative
Instruct the patient to void at 8 AM and discard the specimen. Then collect all urine including the final specimen voided at the end of the 24-hour collection period (ie, 8 AM the next morning). Screw the lid on securely. Container must be labeled with patient's full name, date and time collection started, and date and time collection finished.
Work up volume depletion, acute renal failure, acute oliguria, and differential diagnosis of hyponatremia.1 Division of hyponatremia into hypervolemia or not, edema or not, and urinary Na+ less than or greater than 10 mmol/L provides a classification of hyponatremia.2 History of diuretics, other drug intake, setting of osmotic diuresis or not, serum or plasma electrolytes and other factors are needed.
Ion-selective electrode (ISE); flame photometer
Male (mmol/24 hr)
Female (mmol/24 hr)
0 to 5 y
6 to 12 y
13 to 17 y
18 to 80 y
In cases of hyponatremia, urine sodium <10 mmol/L may indicate extrarenal depletion: dehydration (gastrointestinal or sweat loss), congestive heart failure, liver disease or nephrotic syndromes.
Urine sodium >10 mmol/L may indicate diuretics, emesis, intrinsic renal diseases, Addison disease, hypothyroidism, or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).2 In hypothyroidism and in SIADH, Na+ and Cl- may be >40 mmol/L.3 (Depending on intake, such results also can be found in normal individuals.) In SIADH, urinary sodium is usually >20 mmol/L. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was found in 7% of 250 patients with small cell lung cancer.4 Such patients have hyponatremia, often severe, with hypo-osmolar serum, high urinary sodium excretion with urine osmolality greater than that of serum. Acute and subacute diseases of the CNS, TB and other chronic pulmonary diseases may also cause SIADH. SIADH may also be caused by acute intermittent porphyria, LE, occasional malignant neoplasms other than small cell carcinoma of lung, and a number of drugs.5
The classification as presented here is overly abbreviated for clinical application. Pitfalls exist (eg, increase of Na+ necessary to balance excretion of penicillin).3
Urine Na+ >40 mmol/L in oliguria suggests acute tubular necrosis.3,6 (However, spot urine sodiums without other data have been criticized for their applicability to this diagnosis.)
Low Na+ excretion may be found with early obstructive uropathy and with the oliguria of acute glomerulonephritis3 and in some patients with x-ray contrast acute renal failure.
Silver et al recommend measurement of urinary Na+ excretion in patients with nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria.7
It is important to know the urinary sodium level in patients with unexplained hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis when the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis is being considered.8
|Order Code||Order Code Name||Order Loinc||Result Code||Result Code Name||UofM||Result LOINC|
|003178||Sodium, 24 hr Urine||013326||Sodium, Urine||mmol/L||21525-1|
|003178||Sodium, 24 hr Urine||013268||Sodium, Urine||mmol/24 hr||2956-1|
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