Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP), Plasma

CPT: 84586
Print Share

Test Details

Use

Hypersecretion of VIP is observed in “pancreatic cholera syndrome,” Verner-Morrison syndrome or the watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-hypochlorhydria (WDHH) syndrome. It is characterized by hypermotility, watery diarrhea syndromes with hypokalemia and hypochlorhydria, dehydration and weakness; these symptoms can be reproduced by VIP. VIP can be secreted by pancreatic or ectopic islet cell tumors, and in islet-cell hyperplasia.

Limitations

Not all patients with the syndrome have increased VIP. Increased VIP can be found in healthy controls and in laxative abusers.

Results for this test are for research purposes only by the assay's manufacturer. The performance characteristics of this product have not been established. Results should not be used as a diagnostic procedure without confirmation of the diagnosis by another medically established diagnostic product or procedure.

Methodology

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

Reference Interval

0.0−58.8 pg/mL

Additional Information

Other features of some cases of VIPoma have included hypercalcemia, flushing, and glucose intolerance.1 A study of islet cell tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) included vasoactive intestinal polypeptide tumor (VIPoma) as well as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and insulinoma.2 A VIP-producing tumor causing the pancreatic cholera syndrome was reported as a well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma which contained cells reactive for pancreatic peptide and VIP on immunocytochemistry.3 Normal levels of VIP have been reported in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cirrhosis, ascites, and diabetes.

Specimen Requirements

Specimen

Plasma with Trasylol®, frozen

Volume

2 mL

Minimum Volume

0.4 mL (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)

Container

Lavender-top (EDTA) tube

Patient Preparation

Patient must not have received radioactive substances 24 hours prior to test. Patient should receive at least 300 grams of carbohydrate daily for three days before fasting 12 hours.

Collection

Trasylol® kits may be ordered through the PeopleSoft system (LabCorp N° 33328). Using a chilled 6-mL lavender-top (EDTA) tube taken from the kit, collect a whole blood specimen. Mix the specimen several times by inverting the EDTA collection tube. After removing the cap from the EDTA draw tube, take one of the sterile, Beral pipettes (from under the gray foam), and add 0.25 mL Trasylol® to the EDTA tube. Recap the EDTA tube and invert several times to mix well. Centrifuge the EDTA tube to separate the plasma from the cells, and immediately transfer the plasma into one of the brown screw-cap transfer tubes provided in the kit. There should be a "Trasylol® Added" label affixed to the brown transfer tubes. Cap and freeze the labeled transfer tube containing the EDTA plasma with Trasylol® added. To avoid delays in turnaround time when requesting multiple test on frozen samples, please submit separate frozen specimens for each test requested.

Storage Instructions

Freeze.

Causes for Rejection

Sample not collected with Trasylol®; sample not submitted in tube with Trasylol label, gross hemolysis; recently administered radioisotopes; specimen not received frozen; serum, sodium citrate, or heparinized plasma specimen; lipemia

Clinical Information

Special Instructions

Contact the LabCorp supply department for collection kit.

Footnotes

1. Krejs GJ. Noninsulin-secreting tumors of the pancreatic islets. In: Wilson JD, Foster DW, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1992: 1567-1576.
2. Sheppard BC, Norton JA, Doppman JL, et al. Management of islet cell tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia: A prospective study. Surgery. 1989; 106(6):1108-1118. 2573957
3. Rood RP, DeLellis RA, Dayal Y, et al. Pancreatic cholera syndrome due to a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-producing tumor: Further insights into the pathophysiology. Gastroenterology. 1988; 94(3):813-818. 2828145

References

Basson MD, Fielding LP, Bilchik AJ, et al. Does vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediate the pathophysiology of bowel obstruction? Am J Surg. 1989 Dec; 157(1):109-114. 2910115
Deveney CW, Way LW. Regulatory peptides of the gut. In Greenspan FS, Forsham PH, eds. Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. 3rd ed. Los Altos, Calif: Lange Medical Publications; 1991: 569-591.
Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: Functional aspects. Br Med Bull. 1982 Sep; 38(3):265-270 (review). 6129023
Fraker DL, Norton JA. The role of surgery in the management of islet cell tumors. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1989 Dec; 18(4):805-830. 2559034
Green DW, Gómez G, Greeley GH Jr. Gastrointestinal peptides. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1989 Dec; 18(4):695-733. 2693350
Jaffe BM. The diarrheogenic syndrome: Werner-Morrison, WDHA syndrome. In: Friesen SR, Bolinger RE, eds. Surgical Endocrinology. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott Co; 1978: 219-221.
Said SI. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP): Current status. Peptides. 1984 Mar-Apr; 5(2):143-150 (review). 6147814

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
010397 VIP, Plasma 3125-2 010415 VIP, Plasma pg/mL 3125-2

For Providers

Please login to order a test.

 

© 2017  Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings and Lexi-Comp Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CPT Statement/Profile Statement

The LOINC® codes are copyright © 1994-2017, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. and the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Committee. Permission is granted in perpetuity, without payment of license fees or royalties, to use, copy, or distribute the LOINC® codes for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, subject to the terms under the license agreement found at https://loinc.org/license/. Additional information regarding LOINC® codes can be found at LOINC.org, including the LOINC Manual, which can be downloaded at LOINC.org/downloads/files/LOINCManual.pdf