Thallium, Urine

CPT: 82570; 83018
Updated on 2/6/2019
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Test Details

Test Includes

Creatinine, urine; thallium, urine; thallium:creatinine ratio

Use

Monitor industrial exposure to thallium

Limitations

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by LabCorp. It has not been cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by LabCorp. It has not been cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

Methodology

Inductively-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS)

Reference Interval

Environmental exposure: <0.0−1.5 μg/L

Thallium:creatinine ratio: 0.0−0.9 μg/g creatinine1

Additional Information

Thallium exposure, associated with industrial inhalation and/or dermal absorption of metallic thallium or thallium salts, may cause albuminuria, sensory changes, polyneuritis, speech disturbances, weakness, and visual impairment. Ingestion of soluble thallium salts is characterized by colic, nausea, vomiting, tremors, and paralysis.2 Thallium compounds are employed in semiconductor research, optical systems, and photoelectric cells. Thallium salts are also used as insecticides and rodenticides. Poisoning from occupational exposure to thallium can occur in the manufacture of optical instruments, rodenticides, dyes, and certain alloys. Environmental exposure may follow emissions from smelters, cement plants, and coal-fired plants.

Specimen Requirements

Specimen

Urine (random or 24-hour)

Volume

5 mL

Minimum Volume

1.5 mL

Container

Plastic urine container, no preservative

Collection

Optional protocol: Instruct the patient to void at 8 AM and discard the specimen. Then collect all urine including the final specimen voided at the end of the 24-hour collection period (ie, 8 AM the next morning). Avoid contact with metal during collection. Screw the lid on securely.

Storage Instructions

Maintain specimen at room temperature.

Stability Requirements

Temperature

Period

Room temperature

14 days

Refrigerated

14 days

Frozen

14 days

Freeze/thaw cycles

Stable x3

Clinical Information

Special Instructions

Do not use preservative. Preservatives used for routine analysis may contain mercuric oxide (ie, Stabilur), which interferes with all metal testing. If both a routine urinalysis and metal testing are ordered, please submit a separate urine specimen (containing no additive) for the metal testing.

Footnotes

1. Lauwerys RR, Hoet P. Industrial Chemical Exposure: Guidelines for Biological Monitoring. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Fla: Lewis Publishers;1993:293.
2. Baselt RC, Cravey RH. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 4th ed. Chemical Toxicology Institute;1995.

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
706580 Thallium, Urine 706581 Thallium, Urine ug/L 21558-2
706580 Thallium, Urine 723280 Creatinine(Crt),U g/L 2161-8
706580 Thallium, Urine 706584 Thallium/Crt Ratio ug/g crt 13469-2

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The LOINC® codes are copyright © 1994-2018, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. and the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Committee. Permission is granted in perpetuity, without payment of license fees or royalties, to use, copy, or distribute the LOINC® codes for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, subject to the terms under the license agreement found at https://loinc.org/license/. Additional information regarding LOINC® codes can be found at LOINC.org, including the LOINC Manual, which can be downloaded at LOINC.org/downloads/files/LOINCManual.pdf