Reverse T3

CPT: 84482
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Synonyms

  • T3, Reverse

Expected Turnaround Time

4 - 6 days


Related Documents


Specimen Requirements


Specimen

Serum


Volume

1 mL


Minimum Volume

0.6 mL (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)


Container

Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube


Collection

If a tube other than a gel-barrier tube is used, transfer separated serum to a plastic transport tube.


Storage Instructions

Room temperature


Stability Requirements

Temperature

Period

Room temperature

14 days

Refrigerated

14 days

Frozen

14 days

Freeze/thaw cycles

Stable x3


Test Details


Limitations

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by LabCorp. It has not been cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration.


Methodology

Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)


Reference Interval

See table.

Age

Range (ng/dL)

Premature (26 to 31 wk)

33.0−147.0

Premature (32 to 35 wk)

49.0−217.0

Full-term (2 to 7 d)

33.0−206.0

8 d to 5 m

13.0−107.0

6 to 12 m

8.1−52.8

1 to 15 y

8.3−22.9

16 y and older

9.2−24.1


Additional Information

Reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) is an isomer of triiodothyronine (T3) with no demonstrated biological activity.1,2 The majority of rT3 is produced through peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus of thyroxine (T4). A lesser amount of rT3 is secreted directly by the thyroid gland. Reverse T3 is biologically inactive and does not stimulate thyroid hormone receptors.

Multiple changes in serum thyroid hormone levels are commonly observed secondary to acute (eg, septic shock, myocardial infarction) or chronic (eg, cancer, advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) systemic nonthyroidal illnesses.1-3 The hallmark features of this "nonthyroidal illness syndrome" are a low serum T3 level accompanied by an increase in serum rT3 level. Diminished serum T3 levels (the most biologically-active thyroid hormone) are thought to reflect altered thyroid homeostasis as a mechanism of adapting to severe illness.1 "Low T3 syndrome" affects the majority of critically ill patients and many outpatients suffering less acute illness.1,2 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), free T4 (FT4), and free T4 index (FTI) can also be affected to variable degrees depending on the severity and duration of the illness.1-3 This constellation of abnormal thyroid hormone levels has historically been referred to as the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), because these patients are considered to be clinically euthyroid and typically have no hypothalamic, pituitary, or thyroid gland dysfunction, and thyroid hormone levels generally normalize on resolution of the underlying illness.1,2

The conversion of T4 to rT3 is increased in ESS in large part because of increased 5'-deiodinase activity in the periphery.1,2 This is often referred to as the "thyroid hormone inactivating pathway" because it reduces the amount of T4 available for conversion to biologically active T3.1,2 Also, the conversion of rT3 to diiodothyronine (T2) is reduced in nonthyroidal illness because of inhibition of the 5'-monodeiodinase activity.1 A number of studies have revealed that the expression of these deiodinases is modified by illness in a highly organ-specific manner resulting in tissue-specific modifications to thyroid status.2

In acutely ill patients (after acute myocardial infarction or other patients in intensive care), an elevated rT3 level has been found to independently predict increased mortality.4-8 Significant changes in rT3 occur rapidly in acute illness with maximal changes 24 to 36 hours after the onset of symptoms.6,7 Reverse T3 increase also appears to correlate with the degree of myocardial function impairment in patients with heart failure.8

Reverse T3 is often increased in nonacutely ill elderly people.3,9,10 The Alsanut study, an epidemiological study conducted in the late 1980s, was designed to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in an independently living population of 440 elderly individuals.9 This study revealed a significant relationship between increased rT3 and shorter survival while taking into consideration other critical confounders such as age, gender, medical history, nutritional parameters, and energy intake. In this study, rT3 was the only thyroid hormone associated with shorter survival.9 van den Beld found that elderly persons with isolated increased rT3 had lower physical performance and that elevated rT3 may be associated with a poor global health status.10 Forestier found a strong association between rT3 and survival in a population of independently living elderly subjects regardless of other confounding factors.3


Footnotes

1. Economidou F, Douka E, Tzanela M, Nanas S, Kotanidou A. Thyroid function during critical illness. Hormones (Athens). 2011 Apr-Jun; 10(2):117-124. 21724536
2. Warner MH, Beckett GJ. Mechanisms behind the non-thyroidal illness syndrome: An update. J Endocrinol. 2010 Apr; 205(1):1-13. 20016054
3. Forestier E, Vinzio S, Sapin R, Schlienger JL, Goichot B. Increased reverse triiodothyronine is associated with shorter survival in independently-living elderly: The ALSANUT study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Feb; 160(2):207-214. 19001060
4. Peeters RP, van der Geyten S, Wouters PJ, et al. Tissue thyroid hormone levels in critical illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec; 90(12):6498-6507. 16174716
5. Peeters RP, Wouters PJ, van Toor H, Kaptein E, Visser TJ, Van den Berghe G. Serum 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine/rT3 are prognostic markers in critically ill patients and are associated with postmortem tissue deiodinase activities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Aug; 90(8):4559-4565. 15886232
6. Friberg L, Drvota V, Bjelak AH, Eggertsen G, Ahnve S. Association between increased levels of reverse triiodothyronine and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Med. 2001 Dec 15; 111(9):699-703. 11747849
7. Friberg L, Werner S, Eggertsen G, Ahnve S. Rapid down-regulation of thyroid hormones in acute myocardial infarction: Is it cardioprotective in patients with angina? Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jun 24; 162(12):1388-1394. 12076238
8. Pimentel CR, Miano FA, Perone D, et al. Reverse T3 as a parameter of myocardial function impairment in heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Nov 5; 145(1):52-53. 19428128
9. Goichot B, Schlienger JL, Grunenberger F, Pradignac A, Sapin R. Thyroid hormone status and nutrient intake In the free-living elderly. Interest of reverse triiodothyronine assessment. Eur J Endocrinol. 1994 Mar; 130(3):244-252. 8156097
10. van den Beld AW, Visser TJ, Feelders RA, Grobbee DE, Lamberts SW. Thyroid hormone concentrations, disease, physical function, and mortality in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec; 90(12):6403-6409. 16174720

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
070104 Reverse T3, Serum 3052-8 070105 Reverse T3, Serum ng/dL 3052-8

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