Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2), Qualitative

CPT: 86790
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Test Details



Test Includes

Qualitative result


Qualitative detection of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus, types 1 and/or 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2)


Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA)

Additional Information

HTLV-1, a human type C retrovirus, is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and other demyelinating and neoplastic conditions. More recently, HTLV-1 infection has been shown to be associated with T- and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL), multiple myeloma, some cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, polymyositis, arthritis, Kaposi sarcoma, uveitis, strongyloidiasis, and mycosis fungoides. Type 1 HTLV is irregularly distributed throughout the world, as opposed to type 2 virus, which is a new world virus, more common among Americans in North, Central, and South America. HTLV-2 was first isolated from a patient with T-lymphocytic hairy cell leukemia but has not been unequivocally proven to be a pathogen. Recent findings suggest that HTLV-2 may be associated with a number of other leukemias and lymphomas. A high rate of HTLV-2 seropositives has been observed among intravenous drug users. Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are tropic for CD4 lymphocytes and can be transmitted by sexual contact, IV drug use, blood products, transplacentally, and through breast milk.

Specimen Requirements


Serum or plasma


2 mL

Minimum Volume

1.5 mL


Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube or lavender-top (EDTA) tube


Centrifuge sample to separate serum or plasma. For non−gel-barrier tubes, transfer serum or plasma to a plastic transport tube.

Storage Instructions

Refrigerate. Stable refrigerated for 14 days and frozen for six months.

Causes for Rejection

Bacterial contamination

Clinical Information


Blattner WA, Blayney DW, Robert-Guroff M, et al. Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. J Infect Dis. 1983; 4147(3):406-16. 6300254
Hinuma Y, Komoda H, Chosa T, et al. Antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen (ATLA) in sera from patients with ATL and controls in Japan: A nation-wide seroepidemiologic study. Int J Cancer. 1982; 29(6):631-635. 6980846
Manns A, Blattner WA. The epidemiology of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and type II: Etiologic role in human disease. Transfusion. 1991; 31(1):67-75 (review). 1986467
Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, et al. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980; 77(12):7415-7419. 6261256


Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
163246 HTLV-I/II Antibodies, Qual 22362-8 163247 HTLV-I/II Antibodies, Qual 29901-6

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