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Doxepin; nordoxepin (doxepin metabolite)
Evaluate toxicity; monitor therapeutic levels
Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)
Therapeutic: doxepin + nordoxepin: 50−100 ng/mL
All the tricyclic antidepressants have significant drug interactions. Being potent inducers of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9, the antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and primidone, stimulate the oxidative transformation of concurrently prescribed antidepressants.1 This results in decreased drug levels of the antidepressant. To a lesser extent, co-administration of oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and felbamate can also result in decreased antidepressant levels. Other tricyclic antidepressant drug interactions: hydrocortisone, methylphenidate, and phenothiazines increase tricyclic levels; tricyclics impair the antihypertensive effectiveness of clonidine and guanethidine; tricyclics and alcohol produce additive sedative effects, tricyclics and antiparkinsonism agents have potent anticholinergic side effects, and tricyclics and MAO inhibitors should not be co-administered because of the potential for antihypertensive and CNS crises.
Tricyclics should be avoided in pregnant and lactating women because these drugs have not been established as safe. Geriatric patients are especially prone to postural hypotension, urinary retention, and sedation.2 In general, it has been reported that, “Therapeutic drug monitoring of antidepressants allows us to take into account the influence of factors such as co-medications, diet, smoking habit, impaired organ function, and compliance. Therapeutic drug monitoring and genotyping are thus complementary, and their combined use contributes to improve pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and other drugs.”3
Serum or plasma
Transfer separated serum or plasma to a plastic transport tube.
Causes for Rejection
Gel-barrier tube; red-top tubes are recommended because gel-barrier tubes may cause significant losses (>40%) of the tricyclic antidepressant from serum.
|Order Code||Order Code Name||Order Loinc||Result Code||Result Code Name||UofM||Result LOINC|
|007609||Doxepin (Sinequan), Serum||017616||Doxepin, Serum||ng/mL||3579-0|
|007609||Doxepin (Sinequan), Serum||017624||Nordoxepin, Serum||ng/mL||3862-0|
|007609||Doxepin (Sinequan), Serum||017626||Total (Dox+Nordox)||ng/mL||3582-4|