Benzodiazepines, Screen and Confirmation, Urine

CPT: 80307
Print Share

Test Details

Synonyms

  • Diazepam
  • Librium®
  • Valium®

Test Includes

α-hydroxy-alprazolam; diazepam; nordiazepam; oxazepam. Confirmation is performed at an additional charge.

Use

Detect the presence of benzodiazepines

Methodology

Initial testing by immunoassay (IA); confirmation of positives by mass spectrometry (MS)

Additional Information

The benzodiazepines are a class of chemically related central nervous depressants used as sedative-hypnotics to treat sleep disorders, anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizure disorders. The drug class in low doses can cause sedation, drowsiness, blurred vision, fatigue, mental depression, and loss of coördination. In higher doses, or used chronically, they can cause confusion, slurred speech, hypotension, and diminished reflexes. Chronic use may produce a physical dependence and a withdrawal syndrome which can last for weeks.

Urine should be tested for benzodiazepines in suspected overdose cases, or as part of an abused drug program. These drugs have a relatively low potential for abuse.1 They are, however, frequently found with other drugs in emergency room drug tests. Immunoassay procedures detect a broad range of drugs and their metabolites in this class using either oxazepam or nordiazepam as positive controls. Positive results (usually >300 ng/mL of urine metabolites) should be confirmed by an alternate technique.

Specimen Requirements

Specimen

Urine

Volume

20 mL

Container

Use plastic urine drug bottle and evidence tape or tamper-evident container for forensic specimen. Collection kits are available by request from the laboratory.

Collection

Urine temperature monitoring is recommended for samples to be tested for medicolegal purposes.

Storage Instructions

Maintain specimen at room temperature.

Stability Requirements

Temperature

Period

Room temperature

14 days

Refrigerated

14 days

Frozen

14 days

Clinical Information

Special Instructions

Chain-of-custody documentation is required for samples submitted for preëmployment, random employee testing, and forensic purposes. For other applications, use the standard request form. Please mark chain-of-custody test number on the request form.

Footnotes

1. Cole JO, Chiarello RJ. The benzodiazepines as drugs of abuse. J Psychiatr Res. 1990; 24(Suppl 2):135-144. 1980692

References

Baker MI, Oleen MA. The use of benzodiazepine hypnotics in the elderly. Pharmacotherapy. 1988; 8(4):241-247. 3194321
Beck O, Lafolie P, Hjemdahl P, Borg S, Odelius G, Wirbing P. Detection of benzodiazepine intake in therapeutic doses by immunoanalysis of urine: Two techniques evaluated and modified for improved performance. Clin Chem. 1992 Feb; 38(2):271-275. 1541010
DuPont RL. Abuse of benzodiazepines: The problem and the solutions. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1988; 14(Suppl 1):1-69.
Jones CE, Wians FH Jr, Martínez LA, Merritt GJ. Benzodiazepines identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with specific ion screening used to detect benzophenone derivatives. Clin Chem. 1989 Jul; 35(7):1394-1398. 2667799
Montamat SC, Cusack BJ, Vestal RE. Management of drug therapy in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 3; 321(5):303-309. 2664519
Schauben J. Benzodiazepines. Top Emerg Med. 1985; 7:39-45.
Smith DE, Landry MJ. Benzodiazepine dependency discontinuation: Focus on the chemical dependency detoxification setting and benzodiazepine-polydrug abuse. J Psychiatr Res. 1990; 24(Suppl 2):145-156. 1980693

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
074427 Benzodiazepine Screen, Urine 714832 Benzodiazepines ng/mL 3390-2
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 777140 Benzodiazepines 3390-2
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 777146 Nordiazepam 3861-2
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 777145 Nordiazepam GC/MS Conf ng/mL 16228-9
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 777144 Oxazepam 12361-2
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 714469 Oxazepam GC/MS Conf ng/mL 16201-6
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 777152 OH-Alprazolam 19490-2
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 777153 OH-Alprazolam GC/MS Conf ng/mL 20500-5
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 070474 Documentation N/A
Reflex Table for Benzodiazepines
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 071308 Benzodiazepine Confirmation,Ur 711784 Benzodiazepines GC/MS Holding N/A

For Providers

Please login to order a test.

 

© 2017  Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings and Lexi-Comp Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CPT Statement/Profile Statement

The LOINC® codes are copyright © 1994-2017, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. and the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Committee. Permission is granted in perpetuity, without payment of license fees or royalties, to use, copy, or distribute the LOINC® codes for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, subject to the terms under the license agreement found at https://loinc.org/license/. Additional information regarding LOINC® codes can be found at LOINC.org, including the LOINC Manual, which can be downloaded at LOINC.org/downloads/files/LOINCManual.pdf