Adiponectin

CPT: 83520
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Test Details

Use

Obesity is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.1-4 Recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue may play an important role in the development of these conditions and their complications through the secretion of various bioactive molecules referred to as adipokines. Adipokines contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity-linked disorders through their abilities to modulate inflammatory and metabolic processes. Diminished levels of adiponectin have been associated with the increased prevalence of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease.3 Adiponectin is a plasma adipokine protein secreted specifically by adipose tissue.

Adiponectin automatically self-associates into trimers and larger multimers.1 The primary protein sequence of adiponectin contains a collagen-like domain at the N terminus and a globular domain at the C terminus, similar to collagens VIII, X, and complement factor C1q.1 Plasma levels of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body fat percentage in adults.

Levels of adiponectin are significantly reduced in obese subjects compared to nonobese subjects. Levels of adiponectin are reduced in diabetics compared to nondiabetics. Weight reduction significantly increases circulating levels.

Clinical and experimental studies suggest that low adiponectin levels contribute to the development of obesity-linked illness. Adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance and linked with type II diabetes, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin may have relevance for energy metabolism through the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. A number of studies have suggested that adiponectin plays a regulatory role in atherogenesis, endothelial function, and vascular remodeling.1-10 Adiponectin is also involved in the inflammatory process and is of importance in the appearance of arteriosclerosis and coronaritis. It has been suggested that determination of the adiponectin level in plasma may serve to estimate the risk of coronary disease and may influence physiological processes such as angiogenesis. Further studies have shown that adiponectin acts directly on cardiac cells and facilitates cardiac remodeling in patients suffering from acute cardiac injury.1-3,10 Higher prediagnosis adiponectin levels have also been associated with decreased risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer and a lower risk of prostate cancer-related death.11

Limitations

Results for this test are for research purposes only by the assay's manufacturer. The performance characteristics of this product have not been established. Results should not be used as a diagnostic procedure without confirmation of the diagnosis by another medically established diagnostic product or procedure.

Methodology

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Reference Interval

See table.

Age (y)

Range (mL)

0 to 7

2.3−26.5

8 to 9

4.0−14.9

10 to 11

3.4−13.8

12 to 13

4.5−13.2

14 to 15

3.7−13.7

16 to 19

2.7−13.3

20 to 29

2.5−12.3

30 to 39

2.0−19.3

40 to 49

2.4−17.9

50 to 59

2.2−19.9

60 to 100

3.0−21.1

Specimen Requirements

Specimen

Serum or plasma

Volume

0.3 mL

Minimum Volume

0.1 mL (Note:This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)

Container

Red-top tube, gel-barrier tube, or lavender-top (EDTA) tube

Collection

Separate serum or plasma from cells and transfer to an appropriate tube.

Storage Instructions

Refrigerate

Stability Requirements

Temperature

Period

Room temperature

14 days

Refrigerated

14 days

Frozen

14 days

Freeze/thaw cycles

Stable x3

Causes for Rejection

Nonserum or non-EDTA plasma received

Clinical Information

Footnotes

1. Hopkins TA, Ouchi N, Shibata R, Walsh K. Adiponectin actions in the cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Apr 1; 74(1):11-18. 17140553
2. Walsh K. Adipokines, myokines and cardiovascular disease. Circ J. 2009 Jan; 73(1):13-18. 19043226
3. Shibata R, Ouchi N, Murohara T. Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease. Circ J. 2009 Apr; 73(4):608-614. 19261992
4. Bluher M, Brennan AM, Kelesidis T, et al. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin in relation to metabolic variables at baseline and in response to an exercise treatment program: comparative evaluation of three assays. Diabetes Care, 2007 Feb; 30(2):280-285. 17259495
5. Li S, Shin HJ, Ding EL, van Dam RM. Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009 Jul 8; 302(2):179-188. 19584347
6. Szmitko PE, Teoh H, Stewart DJ, Verma S. Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: State of the art? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Apr; 292(4):H1655-H1663. 17142348
7. Guerre-Millo M. Adiponectin: An update. Diabetes Metab. 2008 Feb; 34(1):12-18. 18069030
8. Antuna-Puente B, Feve B, Fellahi S, Bastard JP. Adipokines: The missing link between insulin-resistance and obesity. Diabetes Metab. 2008 Feb; 34(1):2-11. 18093861
9. Wang ZV, Scherer PE. Adiponectin, cardiovascular function, and hypertension. Hypertension. 2008 Jan; 51(1):8-14. 17998473
10. Goldstein BJ, Scalia RG, Ma XI. Protective vascular and myocardial effects of adiponectin. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2009 Jan; 6(1):27-35. 19029992
11. Li H, Stampfer MJ, Mucci L, et al. A 25-year prospective study of plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations and prostate cancer risk and survival. Clin Chem. 2010 Jan; 56(1):34-43. 19910504

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
004650 Adiponectin 47828-9 004651 Adiponectin ug/mL 47828-9

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