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This assay is not approved for patients of New York State physicians.
Expected Turnaround Time
Turnaround time is defined as the usual number of days from the date of pickup of a specimen for testing to when the result is released to the ordering provider. In some cases, additional time should be allowed for additional confirmatory or additional reflex tests. Testing schedules may vary.
0.1 mL (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)
Gel-barrier tube or red-top tube
Separate serum from cells. Transfer the serum into a LabCorp PP transpak frozen purple tube with screw cap (LabCorp No. 49482). Freeze immediately and maintain frozen at ≤ -20°C until tested. To avoid delays in turnaround time when requesting multiple tests on frozen samples, please submit separate frozen specimens for each test requested.
4 months (stability determined by manufacturer or literature reference)
Stable x2 (stability determined by manufacturer or literature reference)
Lipemic samples can be avoided by having the patient fast for 12 hours prior to collection.
Causes for Rejection
Non-serum sample received; non-frozen serum received; grossly lipemic, hemolytic or icteric sample received
The BUHLMANN™ Anti-GM1 IgM ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of human IgM autoantibodies directed against monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) in human serum.1
Anti-GM1 IgM seropositivity is supportive but not sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of MMN and the diagnosis of cannot be excluded by seronegativity for Anti-GM1.15,24,25 Anti-GM1 may also be found in patients with Guillain-Barr syndrome,4,26 acute motor axonal neuropathy, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well as in normal individuals but these are mainly IgG type antibodies.5,15,27 This test, by itself, is not diagnostic and should be used in conjunction with other clinical parameters to confirm disease.
Results of this test are labeled for research purposes only by the assay's manufacturer. The performance characteristics of this assay have not been established by the manufacturer. The result should not be used for treatment or for diagnostic purposes without confirmation of the diagnosis by another medically established diagnostic product or procedure. The performance characteristics were determined by LabCorp.
Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA) for antibodies to the ganglioside GM11
0 - 30%
GM1 is expressed in the peripheral nervous system in the nodes of Ranvier, outer myelin, and the end plates of motor neurons.2 Measurement of IgM antibodies to GM1 (Anti-GM1) has been employed in the evaluation of with chronic neuropathies that affect the motor nerves. IgM Anti-GM1 seropositivity is significantly associated with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN).2-6 MMN is a purely motor neuropathy (without sensory loss) that is characterized by progressive, asymmetric muscle weakness and atrophy of limbs.6-12 The hallmark of MMN is the presence of conduction block CB with normal sensory nerve conduction across the region of block.8 The reported prevalence of IgM Anti-GM1 positivity in MMN varies widely (25% to 85%) in the literature, depending on the clinical definition and detection techniques used in various studies.2,13-16 Testing for Anti-GM1 was included among the possible supportive laboratory test for the diagnosis of MMN by the Joint Task Force of the EFNS and the PNS. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society.17 Higher titers of Anti-GM1 are associated with greater clinical severity in MMN patients but are rare in most other neurological disorders such as ALS and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.15-16
The underlying cause of MMN is poorly understood but clinical studies suggest that Anti-GM1 autoantibodies directed against myelin antigens, along with autoreactive T cells and macrophages that invade myelin sheath play a causative role.11,18,19 Anti-GM1 antibodies have been shown to bind to the surface of motor neurons, the nodes of Ranvier, and at the neuromuscular junction, where they may exert their effects.2 An autoimmune etiology is further supported the fact that immune modulating therapy improves symptoms for most patients.7,11,18 Approximately 80% of patients with MMN respond to intravenous mmunoglobulins (IVIg). It is important to distinguish MMN from other motor neuron diseases with similar symptoms that are unresponsive to this treatment.8-10 The clinical presentation of MMN can closely mimic several neurological conditions including those with more malignant prognoses such as motor neuron disease.20 There is further value in distinguishing MMN from other immune mediated neuropathies that are responsive to plasma exchanges and steroids, as correct diagnosis is required for choosing the appropriate treatment, with the aim of preventing progressive neuropathy.10,21-23 Testing for anti-GM1 can be useful in cases where MMN is clinically suspected but conduction block is not evident or is in less accessible nerve segments.24