Establish rapid histopathologic diagnosis of a pathologic process; occasionally, to ascertain if cultures are indicated and, if so, to provide indication of the type of cultures needed; procurement of tissue for fat stains; procurement of tissue for direct immunofluorescent examination (eg, κ and λ light chains, bacterial antigens) and for immunoperoxidase procedures, and for rapid diagnosis for direction of fresh tissues for subsequent special studies such as receptor assays and/or electron microscopy. Determination of the spread of disease can be accomplished with frozen sections in selected settings; for instance, whether or not the tumor has metastasized beyond a proposed resection field. An example may be given of pelvic lymph node examination prior to radical prostatectomy, one of the applications of frozen sections in which false-negatives from sampling errors occur. A need exists to ascertain adequacy of the sample for subsequent work-up. Surgeons not infrequently request frozen sections for work-up of unanticipated findings (eg, a nodule in the liver).