Allergen Profile, Walnut, IgE With Component Reflex

CPT: 86003
Print Share

Test Details

Test Includes

The walnut component profile includes allergen-specific IgE to walnut extract. This test reflexes to two molecular components described below.

Use

The measurement of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to individual components of an allergen, either purified native or recombinant, is referred to as component resolved diagnosis (CRD).1-5 This approach represents an improvement over traditional measurement of IgE to allergen extracts that contain a mixture of proteins. The pattern of specific IgE reactivity to component allergens can predict which patients are at higher risk for systemic allergic reactions versus those who are sensitized but clinically tolerant. CRD can also be used to predict which patients are at risk for more severe reactions and which patients are likely to have milder symptoms.

Allergies to plant-derived foods can occur as the result of sensitization to relatively stable proteins, such as the seed storage or lipid transfer proteins. Sensitization to this type of protein can be associated with more severe, systemic reactions and a higher risk for anaphylaxis. Alternatively, allergies to plant-derived foods may occur in pollen-sensitized individuals due to pollen allergens that cross-react with food allergens. Examples of pollen-associated allergens are the profilins or PR10 proteins that are homologues of the major white birch pollen antigen Bet v 1. Allergy to this family of proteins is associated with symptoms that are generally limited to the oropharyngeal area (commonly referred to as the oral allergy syndrome of pollen food allergy syndrome).

Component resolved diagnostics can help to1-5:

• Distinguish between allergy due to cross-reactivity and primary allergy.

• Improve the risk assessment using allergen components.

• Improve management of allergic patients.

Methodology

Thermo Fisher ImmunoCAP® Allergen-specific IgE

Additional Information

Walnut Allergy

• Walnut is one of the most common causes of allergic reactions to tree nuts.6-8

• Walnut allergy is potentially life-threatening, increasing in prevalence, and rarely outgrown.8,9,11

• The estimated prevalence of walnut allergy in the general population is as high as 0.5% and in food allergic children as high as 4%.8,10

• Walnut and pecan nut are botanically closely related and show extensive cross-reactivity.8,11-13

• Walnut allergy can appear early in life, symptoms can be elicited on first known exposure, and the dose can be very low.8,9,11

• Walnut can induce food-dependent anaphylaxis elicited by exercise or other cofactors such as NSAID drugs or alcohol.14-16

• Molecular allergy diagnostics can help to identify primary walnut sensitization in nut allergic patients.12,17

Walnut Components

Jug r 1

• Jug r 1 is a storage protein that serves as an energy source for the seed during growth of a new plant.

• Sensitization to 2S albumin proteins such as Jug r 1 is known to be associated with systemic food reactions.7,8,18,19

• Sensitization to the storage protein Jug r 1 (2S albumin) indicates a primary walnut allergy.6,7

• Walnut allergic patients with sensitization to Jug r 1 should also be investigated for allergy to other nuts or seeds, including pecan nut, hazelnut, and cashew nut, as coëxisting allergies may occur.9,11

Jug r 3

• Walnut-allergic patients sensitized to Jug r 3 may react to other LTP-containing foods, such as peach, other nuts, apple, or grapes.7,8,14,20

• The presence of IgE antibodies to Jug r 3 indicates that local symptoms, as well as systemic reactions, can occur.8,14,20

• Walnut-allergic patients sensitized to Jug r 1 and/or Jug r 3 should avoid raw as well as roasted/heated walnuts.12

Link for further information on walnut CRD.

Specimen Requirements

Specimen

Serum

Volume

0.6 mL

Minimum Volume

0.5 mL (Note: This volume does not allow for repeat testing.)

Container

Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube

Storage Instructions

Room temperature

Clinical Information

Footnotes

1. Chokshi NY, Sicherer SH. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016 Apr; 12(4):389-403. 26666347
2. Canonica GW, Ansotegui IJ, Pawankar R, et al. A WAO - ARIA - GA2LEN consensus document on molecular-based allergy diagnostics. World Allergy Organ J. 2013 Oct 3; 6(1):17. 24090398
3. Incorvaia C, Rapetti A, Aliani M, et al. Food allergy as defined by component resolved diagnosis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2014 Jan; 8(1):59-73. 24483212
4. Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, et al. Food allergy: A practice parameter update-2014. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Nov; 134(5):1016-1025. 25174862
5. Kattan JD, Sicherer SH. Optimizing the diagnosis of food allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2015 Feb; 35(1):61-76. 25459577
6. Roux KH, Teuber SS, Sathe SK. Tree nut allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2003 Aug; 131(4):234-244. 12915766
7. Costa J, Carrapatoso I, Oliveira MB, Mafra I. Walnut allergens: molecular characterization, detection and clinical relevance. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Mar; 44(3):319-341. 24382327
8. Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V. Lipid transfer protein and vicilin are important walnut allergens in patients not allergic to pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Oct; 114(4):908-914. 15480333
9. Rosenfeld L, Shreffler W, Bardina L, et al. Walnut allergy in peanut-allergic patients: significance of sequential epitopes of walnut homologous to linear epitopes of Ara h 1, 2 and 3 in relation to clinical reactivity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012; 157(3):238-245. 22042002
10. McWilliam V, Koplin J, Lodge C, Tang M, Dharmage S, Allen K. The prevalence of tree nut allergy: A systematic review. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2015 Sep; 15(9):54. 26233427
11. Maloney JM, Rudengren M, Ahlstedt S, Bock SA, Sampson HA. The use of serum-specific IgE measurements for the diagnosis of peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Jul; 122(1):145-151. 18502490
12. Sastre J. Molecular diagnosis in allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010 Oct; 40(10):1442-1460. 20682003
13. Uotila R, Kukkonen AK, Pelkonen A, Mäkelä MJ. Cross-sensitization profiles of edible nuts in a birch-endemic area. Allergy. 2016 Apr; 71(4):514-521. 26706253
14. Romano A, Scala E, Rumi G, Gaeta F, et al. Lipid transfer proteins: The most frequent sensitizer in Italian subjects with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Nov; 42(11):1643-1653. 23106665
15. Cardona V, Luengo O, Garriga T, et al. Co-factor-enhanced food allergy. Allergy. 2012 Oct; 67(10):1316-1318. 22845005
16. Pascal M, Muñoz-Cano R, Reina Z, et al. Lipid transfer protein syndrome: clinical pattern, cofactor effect and profile of molecular sensitization to plant-foods and pollens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct; 42(10):1529-1539. 22994350
17. Ciprandi G, Pistorio A, Silvestri M, Rossi GA, Tosca MA. Walnut anaphylaxis: The usefulness of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. Immunol Lett. 2014 Sep; 161(1):138-139. 24928563
18. Pedrosa M, Boyano-Martínez T, García-Ara MC, Caballero T, Quirce S. Peanut seed storage proteins are responsible for clinical reactivity in Spanish peanut-allergic children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012 Nov; 23(7):654-659. 22830362
19. Robotham JM, Wang F, Seamon V, et al. Ana o 3, an important cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) allergen of the 2S albumin family. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Jun; 115(6):1284-1290. 15940148
20. Egger M, Hauser M, Mari A, Ferreira F, Gadermaier G. The role of lipid transfer proteins in allergic diseases. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2010 Sep; 10(5):326-335. 20582490

LOINC® Map

Order Code Order Code Name Order Loinc Result Code Result Code Name UofM Result LOINC
604600 IgE Walnut w/Component Reflex 602444 Class Description N/A
604600 IgE Walnut w/Component Reflex 602530 F256-IgE Walnut kU/L 6273-7
Reflex Table for F256-IgE Walnut
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 602444 Class Description 602444 Class Description N/A
Reflex Table for F256-IgE Walnut
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 604721 Panel 604721 604719 F441-IgE Jug r 1 kU/L 81790-8
Reflex 2 000000 602444 000000 N/A
Reflex Table for F256-IgE Walnut
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 604721 Panel 604721 604720 F442-IgE Jug r 3 kU/L 81789-0
Reflex 2 000000 602444 000000 N/A
Reflex Table for F256-IgE Walnut
Order Code Order Name Result Code Result Name UofM Result LOINC
Reflex 1 604721 Panel 604721 603850 Reflex Allergy Tracking N/A

For Providers

Please login to order a test.

 

© 2017  Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings and Lexi-Comp Inc. All Rights Reserved.

CPT Statement/Profile Statement

The LOINC® codes are copyright © 1994-2017, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. and the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Committee. Permission is granted in perpetuity, without payment of license fees or royalties, to use, copy, or distribute the LOINC® codes for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, subject to the terms under the license agreement found at https://loinc.org/license/. Additional information regarding LOINC® codes can be found at LOINC.org, including the LOINC Manual, which can be downloaded at LOINC.org/downloads/files/LOINCManual.pdf