Also known as:Apo A
Formal name:Apolipoprotein A-I
Related tests:HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Lipid Profile, Cholesterol, Apo B, Lp(a), Cardiac Risk Assessment, Apo B/Apo A-I Ratio
Why Get Tested?
To determine whether or not you have an adequate level of apo A-I, especially if you have a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and to help determine your risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)
When to Get Tested?
When you have high cholesterol and triglycerides (hyperlipidemia) and/or a family history of CVD; when your health care provider is trying to assess your risk of developing heart disease; when monitoring the effectiveness of lipid treatment and/or lifestyle changes
A blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm; blood from the prick of a baby's heel or finger
Test Preparation Needed?
None; however, this test is often ordered at the same time as other tests that require fasting, so you may be instructed to fast for 12 hours prior to having this test.
How is it used?
Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) may be ordered, along with other lipid tests, as part of a profile to help determine a person's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). It may be used as an alternative to a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) test, but it is not generally considered "better" or more informative than HDL and is not ordered routinely.
Apo A-I is a protein that has a specific role in the metabolism of lipids and is the main protein component in HDL, the "good cholesterol"). HDL removes excess cholesterol from cells and takes it to the liver for recycling or disposal. Levels of apo A-I tend to rise and fall with HDL levels, and deficiencies in apo A-I correlate with an increased risk of developing CVD.
An apo A-I test may sometimes be ordered to:
- Help diagnose inherited or acquired conditions that cause apo A-I deficiencies
- Help evaluate people who have a personal or family history of heart disease and/or high cholesterol and triglycerides
- Monitor the effectiveness of lifestyle changes and lipid treatments
An apo A-I may be ordered along with an apolipoprotein B (apo B) test to determine an apo B/apo A-I ratio. This ratio is sometimes used as an alternative to a total cholesterol/HDL ratio (sometimes reported as part of a lipid profile) to evaluate risk for developing CVD.
When is it ordered?
Apo A-I may be measured when someone has a personal or family history of abnormal lipid levels and/or premature CVD. It may be ordered when a health practitioner is trying to determine the cause of a person's high cholesterol and/or suspects it may be due to a disorder that is causing a deficiency in apo A-I.
Apo A-I may be ordered along with apo B when a health practitioner wants to check an apo B/apo A-I ratio as a CVD risk indicator, to evaluate the "bad" to "good" cholesterol.
Apo A-I may be ordered, along with other tests, when someone has undergone lipid-lowering treatment or lifestyle changes, such as decreased dietary fat and increased regular exercise, to monitor the effectiveness of the changes.
What does the test result mean?
Low levels of apo A-I are associated with low levels of HDL and impaired clearance of excess cholesterol from the body. Low levels of apo A-I, along with high concentrations of apo B, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
There are some genetic disorders that lead to deficiencies in apo A-I (and therefore to low levels of HDL). People with these disorders tend to have abnormal lipid levels, including high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL - the "bad" cholesterol). Frequently, they have accelerated rates of atherosclerosis. These genetic disorders are primary causes of low apo A-I. For more on some of these disorders, see the Related Pages tab.
Changes in levels of apo A-I may also be associated with other factors. Some of the conditions that contribute to decreases or increases in apo A-I are listed below.
Apo A-I may decrease with:
- Chronic kidney disease
- Use of drugs such as: androgens, beta blockers, diuretics, and progestins (synthetic progesterone)
- Uncontrolled diabetes
Apo A-I may increase with:
- Use of drugs such as: carbamazepine, estrogens, ethanol, lovastatin, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, pravastatin, and simvastatin
- Physical exercise
- Weight reduction
- Use of statins
Is there anything else I should know?
The concentration of apo A-I reflects the amount of HDL in the serum. Since women tend to have higher HDL, they also have higher levels of apo A-I.
The apo A-I test is not routinely ordered. Health practitioners still have to determine the best uses for the apo A-I and other tests for emerging cardiac risk markers (such as apo B, hs-CRP, and Lp(a)). They offer additional information in specific situations but are not meant to replace the lipid tests already routinely available.
What is being tested?
Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is a protein that has a specific role in the metabolism of lipids and is the main protein component in high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the "good cholesterol"). This test measures the amount of apo A-I in the blood.
Apolipoproteins combine with lipids to transport them throughout the bloodstream. Apolipoproteins provide structural integrity to lipoproteins and shield the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their center.
Most lipoproteins are cholesterol- or triglyceride-rich and carry lipids throughout the body for uptake by cells. HDL, however, is like an empty taxi. It goes out to the tissues and picks up excess cholesterol, then transports it back to the liver. In the liver, the cholesterol is either recycled for future use or excreted into bile. HDL's reverse transport is the only way that cells can get rid of excess cholesterol. It helps protect the arteries and, if there is enough HDL present, it can even reverse the build-up of fatty plaques, deposits resulting from atherosclerosis that can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Apolipoprotein A is the taxi driver. It activates the enzymes that load cholesterol from the tissues into HDL and allows HDL to be recognized and bound by receptors in the liver at the end of the transport. There are two forms of apolipoprotein A: apo A-I and apo A-II. Apo A-I is found in greater proportion than apo A-II (about 3 to 1). The concentration of apo A-I can be measured directly and tends to rise and fall with HDL levels. Deficiencies in apo A-I correlate with an increased risk of developing CVD.
How is the sample collected for testing?
A blood sample is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm. As an alternative, particularly in pediatric care, the blood sample is obtained by pricking the heel or fingertip.
NOTE: If undergoing medical tests makes you or someone you care for anxious, embarrassed, or even difficult to manage, you might consider reading one or more of the following articles: Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety, Tips on Blood Testing, Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests, and Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests.
Another article, Follow That Sample, provides a glimpse at the collection and processing of a blood sample and throat culture.
Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?
No test preparation is needed; however, since this test may be performed at the same time as a complete lipid profile, fasting for at least 12 hours may be required.
- What can I do to raise my apo A-I?
Regular exercise is one of the best ways to raise HDL and apo A-I. By decreasing the saturated fat in your diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising, you can help decrease your risk of developing heart disease.
- Can an apo A-I test be performed in my doctor's office or at home?
No, the apo A-I test requires specialized equipment and is not offered by every laboratory. Your blood may need to be sent to a reference laboratory for testing.
© 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry, republished from Lab Tests Online.*
Descriptions of clinical laboratory tests were originally prepared for use on Lab Tests Online, an award-winning patient education website on clinical laboratory testing. Lab Tests Online is produced by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC), a global scientific and medical professional organization dedicated to clinical laboratory science and its application to healthcare. The Lab Tests Online website is developed in collaboration with other laboratory professional societies and is funded in part through corporate sponsorships.